On the atoll of Rongelap in the northern seas of the Marshall Islands, apprentice navigators once learned to find their way across the ocean by remotely sensing how islands transform the patterning of swell and currents. Renowned for their instructional stick charts that model and map the interplay of islands and waves, these students of wave piloting techniques embarked on trial voyages to ruprup jo̧kur, a Marshallese expression roughly translated as “breaking the shell” of the turtle, which would confer their status as navigators. These traditional practices, already in decline with imposing colonial occupations, came to an abrupt halt with the Cold War–era nuclear weapons testing program conducted by the United States. The residents and their descendants are still trying to recover from the myriad environmental, biological, social, and psychological impacts of the nuclear tests.
Breaking the Shell presents the journey of Captain Korent Joel, who, having been forced into exile from the near-apocalyptic thermonuclear Bravo test of 1954, has reconnected to his ancestral maritime heritage and forged an unprecedented path toward becoming a navigator. Paralleling the Hawaiian renaissance that centered on Nainoa Thompson learning from Satawalese navigator Mau Piailug, the beginnings of the Marshallese voyaging revitalization—a collaborative, community-based project spanning the fields of anthropology, history, and oceanography—involved blending scientific knowledge systems, resolving ambivalence in nearly forgotten navigational techniques, and deftly negotiating cultural protocols of knowledge use and transmission. Through Captain Korent’s own voyaging trial, he and a group of surviving mariners from Rongelap are, against one of the darkest hours in human history, “breaking the shell” of their prime identity as nuclear refugees to begin recovering their most intimate of connections to the sea. Ultimately these efforts would inaugurate the return of the traditional outrigger voyaging canoe for the greater Marshallese nation, an achievement that may work toward easing ethnic tensions abroad and ensure cultural survival in their battle against the looming climate change–induced rising ocean. Drawing attention to cultural rediscovery, revitalization, and resilience in Oceania, the Marshallese are once again celebrating their existence as a people born to the rhythms of the sea.
This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and reviews how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden’s efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry as well as shedding light on remaining challenges and potential measures to achieve zero-carbon shipping. The analysis has particular relevance in the light of proposals to develop National Action Plans for the decarbonisation of maritime transport in the context of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Initial Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Strategy. As such, the analysis presented will be of use not only to policy-makers in Sweden but also to decision- makers in other countries seeking to reduce maritime GHG emissions. The analysis benefits from interviews with stakeholders, listed in the annex, conducted during study visits to Gothenburg and Stockholm.
This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden's efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry and sheds light on remaining challenges and potential solutions to achieve zero-carbon shipping.
The abatement potential of wind technologies on ships is estimated to be around 10–60% by various sources. To date there has been minimal uptake of this promising technology, despite a number of commercially available solutions that have been developed to harness this free and abundant energy source. Several barriers have been referred to in the literature that inhibit uptake of energy efficiency measures in shipping. This paper provides a systematic analysis of the viability of wind technology on ships and the barriers to their implementation, both from the perspective of the technology providers and technology users (ship owner–operators), using the survey and the deliberative workshop method. The data generated from these methods is analysed using the qualitative content analysis method. The results show that whilst there is renewed interest in wind power, there are several common economic barriers that are hindering the mass uptake of wind technologies. Our analysis shows that third party capital is a plausible solution to overcoming the cost of capital, split incentives and information barriers that have contributed to inhibiting the uptake of wind technology in the shipping industry.