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Latest Science

A policy brief is now available on transport infrastructure emissions for the road and railway sectors.  Authors Greg Marsden, Kadambari Lokesh, Danielle Densley-Tingley have released a new work titled" Everything Counts" that quantifies emissions for both road and rail schemes and the importance of counting them in carbon budgets.   


This paper discusses the issue of Impact Assessments required for measures proposed under the IMO’s Initial IMO Strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships. It has been prepared to provide background information and analysis to Pacific high ambition delegations participating in ongoing negotiations at the International Maritime Organisation negotiating Greenhouse Gas  emission reductions for international shipping. At the same time, the content may be useful to inform other delegations and actors.

The issues surrounding Impact Assessments will arise throughout the 2022 IMO negotiating sessions. The IMO Secretariat has designated a ‘lessons learnt’ exercise, commencing with an Ad Hoc Experts Working Group prior to ISWG11. Pacific states are heavily invested in this issue.  Pacific SIDS will clearly be amongst the most heavily affected if abatement measures for shipping emissions generate negative impacts on states. At the same time, these states are pressing for the highest ambition measures possible to maintain a 1.5 agenda as quickly as possible.

It is important that delegations and negotiators are fully appraised on the origins of this discussion at IMO (and its more broader context) as the definitions applied this year will have far reaching consequences for the matters of prime concern to the Pacific, in particular the level of ambition and the definition of “equitable transition”.


Prof. Michael Vahs talks about the 2018 German- Dutch project consortium under the scientific direction of the Emden/Leer University of Applied Sciences which aimed to retrofit and commission the latest rotor development of the Eco-Flettner type on the test ship "Fehn Pollux" of the Leer-based shipping company Fehn Ship Management.  The Faculty of Maritime Sciences at Emden/ Leer University of Applied Sciences has developed an automatic control and monitoring system for Flettner rotors that also records data which will help in determining economic costs and benefits. click here to visit article

Researchers from Aston University explain that while operating measures and fuel alternatives are suitable in the short-term to meet a reduction in carbon emissions from shipping, as the use of fossil fuels tapers off, the long-terms solution appears to reside in wind-assisted ships. Consequently, this study aims to identify viable solutions that could reduce emissions, focusing on three prominent technologies, namely sails, rotors and kites.  Click here to read more ..