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Latest Science

Disbursement of Revenues generated by IMO’s emission reduction measures: Is contributing to a just and equitable transition that leaves no state behind an empty slogan? How much should be spent on what by who?

The IMO’s 2023 Revised Strategy for reduction of emissions from ships includes provisions which direct a just and equitable transition. How should revenues be disbursed to ensure that the sector reduces its emissions in a way that leaves no state behind and compensates the climate mostvulnerable for the pollution caused?

Read the full article here to explore detailed insights and recommendations.


The Vanuatu government is seeking an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice on the legal responsibility of countries to act on climate change. This will provide clarity on loss and damage finance and could catalyse powerful legal tools that hold polluters accountable. Human rights can be a valuable framing for calling attention to and addressing loss and damage, but there remains limited scholarship so far. Here we explore how climate change is impinging on the rights of Ni-Vanuatu and what can be done in response. Our findings show that loss and damage to fundamental rights is already occurring and will worsen, undermining the right to a life of dignity. The future loss and damage fund, and other initiatives, should integrate a human rights restoration package that includes recording and safeguarding Indigenous knowledge, promoting cultural continuity, restoring the socio-ecological system, building back better and investing in education.

Click here to read the full article (subscription needed)


This database records litigation (including settled cases and court orders) on issues of climate change in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. It encompasses cases across several different substantive categories including:

  1. Project Approval (mitigation) cases.
  2. Project Approval (adaptation) cases.
  3. Corporate Accountability cases.
  4. Constitutional and Human Rights / State Accountability cases.
  5. Cases that broaden access to justice in climate cases.

The remaining carbon budget (RCB), the net amount of CO2 humans can still emit without exceeding a chosen global warming limit, is often used to evaluate political action against the goals of the Paris Agreement. RCB estimates for 1.5 °C are small, and minor changes in their calculation can therefore result in large relative adjustments. Here we evaluate recent RCB assessments by the IPCC and present more recent data, calculation refinements and robustness checks that increase confidence in them. We conclude that the RCB for a 50% chance of keeping warming to 1.5 °C is around 250 GtCO2 as of January 2023, equal to around six years of current CO2 emissions. For a 50% chance of 2 °C the RCB is around 1,200 GtCO2. Key uncertainties affecting RCB estimates are the contribution of non-CO2 emissions, which depends on socioeconomic projections as much as on geophysical uncertainty, and potential warming after net zero CO2.

Authors: Lamboll, R.D., Nicholls, Z.R.J., Smith, C.J. et al.